Modern use of metal alloys for the automotive industry


Met. litʹe Ukr., 2019, Tom 27, №10-12, P.74-81

V.A. Gnatush, PhD (Engin.), Independent Analyst, e-mail:,
V.S. Doroshenko1, Dr. Sci. (Engin.), Senior Research Scientist, Senior Researcher, e-mail:,

1Physico-technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of the NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine)

Received 1.11.2019

UDK 669.14/669.2/629

Vehicle manufacturing is at the forefront of the global world economy and is the forefront of competition from both economically advanced countries and powerful companies in the industry that are among the most profitable in the engineering sector. The article presents an analysis of the market for high-strength iron and carbon alloys for the automotive industry with a view to further developing this industry in Ukraine. In addition, off-road vehicles are required for defense purposes. The brands and chemical compositions of the alloys used by the world's most advanced companies in car designs are described. The decrease in the use of rolled steel will be offset by an increase in the use of rolled steel and castings made of aluminum alloys, which is fueled by the upward trend in electric vehicle output. Among the new materials is isothermally hardened austempered ductile iron (ADI), which has high foundry properties and durability at a lower cost of processing than steel. ADI mainly produces crankshafts and camshafts, gears, suspension brackets, impellers, valve housings, compressor housings. ADI has a high damping ability, which makes the parts absorb 2–5 times more energy than steel parts, so noise levels are reduced by about 8–10 decibels when used in gearboxes. Such information may be useful to designers, founders and metallurgists who provide the design, selection of materials and technology for the manufacture of metal billets and parts of vehicles, taking into account the reduction of their weight and pollution from their operation, as well as teachers and students of transport specialties, specialists in the utilization of metals of old cars to account for the composition of metals and subsequent blending in their melting and heat treatment of parts with advanced properties.

Keywords: High-strength steels, high-strength aluminum alloys, austempered ductile iron, automotive, chemical composition, mechanical properties.


1. Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles. URL:
2. International Trade Centre. URL:
3. Demeri, M.Y. (2012). Advanced High-Strength Steels – Science, Technology, and Application. ASM International, 22 p.
4. Paritud Bhandhubanyong, John T.H. Pearce. (2018). Materials on Wheels: Moving to Lighter Auto-bodies. International
Scientific Journal of Engineering and Technology (ISJET), vol. 2, no. 1, January–June 2018, pp. 27–36.
5. Hang Cho, Moon-Kee Kong. (2017). The Steel Industry over the Next Two Decades. POSCO Research Institute. Asian Steel
Watch, vol. 03, June 2017, pp. 38–45. URL:
7. Bzdok, M.S. (2008). Lightweighting Materials. 5. Automotive Metals – Steel. FY 2008 Progress Report, 141 p.
8. Thyssen Krupp. Bake-hardening steels BHZ. Product information. May 2016, version 1, p. 14. URL:
9. Prahl, U., Ramazani, A., Berme, B. (2013). Advanced Steels for Transport Applications. Structural Materials and Processes in
Transportation. Edited by Dirk Lehmhus et al. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, pp. 1–47.
10. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels. ASM International, 2001, pp. 193–202. URL:
11. Granbom, Ylva (2010). Structure and mechanical properties of dual phase steels: An experimental and theoretical analysis.
Doctoral thesis. Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden, p. 66. URL:
12. Dimatteo, A., Lovicu, G. (2006). Microstructures and properties of Transformation Induced Plasticity steels. La metallurgia
italiana, no. 11–12/2006, pp. 37–41. URL:
13. Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) Steel. URL:
14. Yukihiro Utsum, Atsuhiro Shiraki. (2017). Martensitic Steel Sheets of 1300 and 1500 MPa Grades. Kobelco Technology
Review, no. 35, Jun. 2017, pp. 34–38.
15. Martensitic (MS) Steel. URL:
16. Complex-phase steels. Voestalpine Steel Division. 06/2019, p. 3. URL:
17. Tisza, M., Lukács, Zs. (2018). High strength aluminum alloys in car manufacturing. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and
Engineering 418 (2018), 8 p. URL:
18. Zapp, P., Rombach, G., Kuckshinrichs, W. (2002). The Future of Automotive Aluminium, p. 5. URL: http://www.metallurgie.
19. Aalco Metals Ltd, UK. URL:
20. Aluminum 7075-T6; 7075-T651. Aerospace Specification Metals Inc. URL:
21. P. Vijaya Kumar, G. Madhusudhan Reddy, K. Srinivasa Rao. (2015). Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behavior of
high strength AA7075 aluminium alloy friction stir welds – Effect of post weld heat treatment. Defence Technology 11 (2015),
pp. 362–369. URL:
22. Tisza, M. (2017). High-strength steels and aluminium alloys in lightweight body manufacturing. Archives of Materials Science
and Engineering. December 2017, Volume 88, pp. 68–74.
23. Goran Djukanovic (2019). Aluminium Alloys in the Automotive Industry: a Handy Guide. Feb. 28, 2019, p. 7. URL: https://
24. Doug Richman. (2017). Mega trends in Advanced Automotive Metals. T3 Manufacturing Summit. April 24–25, 2017, 19 p.