Development of a method for producing porous and filter ceramics with the ability to control the number of pores, their size and size distribution


Met. litʹe Ukr., 2019, Tom 27, №10-12, P.89-100

V.S. Doroshenko, Dr. Sci. (Engin.), Senior Research Scientist, Senior Researcher, e-mail:,
Ju.G. Kvasnytska, Dr. Sci. (Engin.), Senior Research Scientist, Leading Researcher, e-mail:,
I.I. Maksyuta, PhD (Engin.), Senior Research Scientist, Senior Researcher Physico-technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of the NAS of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine)

Received 28.10.2019

UDK 669.182.4.621.747.53

Porous materials – the basis of modern filtering and heat-shielding materials, catalyst carriers, flame arresters and sound
absorbers – are made by the introduction of blowing agents, burnable additives or hollow bodies, pressing and extrusion
molding. Examples of typical ceramic filters are shown and useful experience of filtering liquid metals with such filters for
the foundry and metallurgical industry is noted. As analogues, the most applied methods for the production of porous and
filter ceramics are analyzed and a new method for producing such ceramics with the possibility of controlling the number of
pores, their size and size distribution is considered. For this, a cryotechnology for the use of granular ice as a blowing agent
in ceramic products has been developed. Previously created methods of using granular ice for molding products from sand
and ice mixtures served as the basis for a new cryotechnology for pore formation. One of the domestic compositions widely
used in metallurgy of refractory concrete mixtures was selected as a prototype. For pore formation, granular ice was used in
an amount of 8–90 % by weight of the mixture. Removal of this ice is conveniently carried out by spontaneous melting when
the molded product is aged at room temperature or elevated to 40–100 °C. Also, a hydration binder (cement or gypsum) is
introduced into the mixture of loose finely dispersed components, which is moistened with the melt of granular ice introduced
into the mixture, and as a result of this moistening, the mixture sets and hardens to a monolithic state by the formation of
crystalline hydrates. Physical models of the interaction of the mineral with water and ice are considered. When moistening
and evacuating a ceramic preform, conditions are created for regulating its porosity both in terms of permeability and in the
orientation of through pores.

Keywords: Porous material, ceramics, filter, filter ceramics, ice, porosity, liquid metal, evacuation, pore size control.


1. Porozova, S.E. (2005). Development of processes for the preparation and formation of the structure and properties of highly
porous permeable materials based on oxide natural compounds: Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis: 05.16.06. Perm, 30
p. [in Russian].
2. LANIK s.r.o. Filtration technology. Filter types and scope of use. Czech Republic. URL:
3. Maksyuta, I.I., Kvasnytska, Ju.G., Myalnitsa, G.F. et al. (2013). The use of ceramic filters in the smelting of billets from heatresistant
alloys. Casting processes, no. 6, pp. 69–74 [in Russian].
4. Antsiferov, V.N., Artemov, A.A., Porozova, S.E. et al. (2001). Filtration of gray cast iron through ceramic foam filters. Litejnoe
proizvodstvo, no. 1, pp. 11–12 [in Russian].
5. Salakhov, A.M. (2016). Modern ceramic materials. MON RF, Kazanskij federaln. un-t. Kazan: KFU, 407 p. [in Russian].
6. Shinskiy, O.Y., Doroshenko, V.S. (2014). Patent 91197 Ukraine, MPK B22C 9/02. А method of filtration molding. u201400637;
zaiavl. 23.01.2014; opubl. 25.06.2014, Biul. no. 12, 7 p. [in Ukrainian].
7. Doroshenko, V.S., Shinskiy, O.Y. (2014). Patent 95319 Ukraine, MPK B22C 9/02. А molding method. u201405173; zaiavl.
16.05.2014; opubl. 25.12.2014, Biul. no. 24, 7 p. [in Ukrainian].
8. Ilyuha, M.G, Lebedenko, Ye.I., Timofiiva, V.P. (2009). Patent 42546 Ukraine, MPK C04B 7/32. Refractory composite concrete
mix. u200901242; zaiavl. 16.02.2009; opubl. 10.07.2009, Biul. no. 13, 2 p. [in Ukrainian].
9. Staroverov, Yu.S., Chernov, Yu.A. (1992). The use of ceramic foam filters in foundry and steelmaking abroad. Ogneupory,
no. 1, pp. 38–40 [in Russian].
10. Verichev, E.N., Opalejchuk, L.S. (1987). Methods of manufacturing filtering foam ceramics. Otkrytiya. Izobreteniya, no. 9,
P. 123 [in Russian].
11. Krasnyj, B.L., Tarasovskij, V.P., Kislyakov, A.N. (2007). Patent 2304568 Russia, MPK С04В38 / 06, С04В35 / 101. A method
of manufacturing a filtering ceramic foam. Zayavl. 10.02.2006; opubl. 20.08.2007 [in Russian].
12. Mouala, H. et al. (2006). Open-pore steel foam – manufacturing and properties. Metallurgiya mashinostroeniya, no. 6,
pp. 29–33 [in Russian].
13. Frolovskii, N.M. (Ed.) (1986). Refractories for CCM: proceedings conf. Transl. from German by A.P. Alekseev, 134 p.
[in Russian].
14. Shinskiy, O.Y., Doroshenko, V.S. (2013). Patent 77595 Ukraine, MPK B22C 9/02. A method of manufacturing articles of loose
filler. u201207872; zaiavl. 26.06.2012; opubl. 25.02.2013, Biul. no. 4, 9 p. [in Ukrainian].
15. Shinskiy, O.Y., Doroshenko, V.S. (2013). Patent 77659 Ukraine, MPK B22C 7/02. A method of manufacturing ice patterns.
u201208885; zaiavl. 18.07.2012; opubl. 25.02.2013, Biul. no. 4, 5 p. [in Ukrainain].
16. Ermolaev, A.E. (2008). Obtaining water ice by layer-by-layer freezing under vacuum conditions: Candidate’s thesis: 05.04.03.
Moscow, 95 p. [in Russian].
17. Doroshenko, V.S. (2017). The structure of research on the development of casting technology for ice models using a number
of features and natural phenomena. Casting processes, no. 1, pp. 39–46 [in Russian].
18. Ye Aung Min. (2017). Durable porous permeable ceramic based on electrofused corundum: Candidate’s thesis: 05.17.11.
Moscow, 149 p. [in Russian].
19. Andrianov, N.T., Balkevich, V.L., Belyakov, A.V. (2012). Chemical technology of ceramics. Moscow: Stroimaterialy, 493 p.
[in Russian].
20. Sychev, M.M. (1974). Hardening of binders. L.: Stroiizdat, 80 p. [in Russian].
21. Gulyaev, B.B., Kornyushkin, O.A., Kuzin, A.V. (1987). Molding processes. L.: Mashinostroenie. Leningr. otd-nie, 264 p.
[in Russian].
22. Maeno, N. (1988). The science of ice. Moscow: Mir, 231 p. [in Russian].
23. Kotov, V. (2003). Physics on the beach. Nauka i zhizn’, no. 6, pp. 120–123 [in Russian].
24. Tubular Foam Ceramic Filters. Foundry Management & Technology. 04.02.2014.